What are the various minor oral surgeries?
Minor surgeries in the mouth are done under local anesthesia. The most common minor oral surgery is tooth removal. Others are:
- Impacted tooth removal
- Flap surgeries
- Ridge augmentation procedures etc.
what is a wisdom tooth?
Wisdom teeth as commonly known as are the third molars of human dentition.
They are called so, as they erupt at the age of 18-25 at which it is assumed that an individual becomes wiser.
These teeth erupt at an age, when rests of the 28 permanent teeth are well settled in the dentition. Due to the evolution the human jaws are getting smaller and hence there will not be sufficient space left for the erupting third molars. So they either get locked in the bone leading to impaction or they erupt at wrong angulation. Either of these can create problems to adjacent teeth and the surrounding soft tissues.
What are the various problems associated with a third molar?
- Various problems associated with third molars
- The wisdom teeth might get locked inside the bone called impaction.
- They might exert pressure on the adjacent second molars and induce pain and bone resorption behind second molars
- The contact between second and third molars may be defective leading to food lodging and caries in both teeth
- There can be inflammation of the gums covering the third molars during eruption that can get inflamed. This is pericoronitis and can be expressed as severe pain, swelling at the corner of the jaws, inability to close the jaws and other issues
- Third molars that have erupted more towards cheek may traumatize cheeks for long periods and are difficult to clean. So they develop decay and bone problems sooner or later.
- Sometimes the impacted third molars may develop cystic cavities (fluid filled spaces around the tooth in the bone) this induces bone loss and weakening of the jaw bone.
What is an impacted tooth and what are the varieties of teeth impactions?
A tooth is said to be impacted when it has failed to erupt above the gum line.
The teeth that are most commonly impacted are third molars particularly of the lower jaw, followed by upper jaw third molars and then upper canines.
Varieties of lower third molar impactions: Due to the lack of space available for eruption, lower third molars get often impacted.
The varieties of impactions are,
Impacted teeth can apply pressure on adjacent healthy teeth and induce tooth ache and bone loss, can also contribute to cavities on the second molars and if they develop cystic cavities around then they can weaken the jaw and lead to jaw fracture eventually.
So it is advisable to remove the impacted lower third molars at the earliest.
What are the instructions given to the patient following tooth removal/minor surgery?
- Patient is asked to bite over the pressure pack for at least half an hour
- Topical intermittent application of cold packs
- Pain killers prescribed by the surgeon should be consumed within half an hour
- Avoid hard and hot food as this may induce bleeding and cause irritation of the wound/socket
- Soft and cold food should be consumed
- If sutures are given, patient should visit the surgeon after 7-8 days for suture removal
- Maintenance of hygiene at the extraction site is crucial
- Bleeding even after 1-2 hours should be informed to the dentist and instructions should be followed
What is the procedure of removal of an impacted tooth?
The structure of The impacted tooth and the surrounding bone is first analyzed with intra oral X-rays( radiographs)
- Removing an impacted tooth is a minor surgery. To begin with, the region is made numb with local anesthesia. The covering tissues are reflected with an incision and the tooth and bone are exposed. The obstructing bone is gently drilled and then tooth is removed with elevators and forceps
- At the end the soft tissue ends are sutured to close the socket and allow for healing of the site.
- Pressure packs and instructions are given after the surgery.